where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located facts, news, stories and more



The electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of protein complexes located in the inner membrane of the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells and in the plasma membrane of prokaryotic cells. These protein complexes work together to generate a flow of electrons through the membrane, creating a proton gradient that drives the production of ATP, the primary energy currency of cells.The ETC is made up of four main protein complexes: Complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase), Complex II (succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase), Complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase) and Complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase). Each complex is made up of multiple subunits, some of which are encoded by the mitochondrial DNA, others by the nuclear DNA.Complex I, also known as NADH dehydrogenase, is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It accepts electrons from NADH and transfers them to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q). Complex II, also known as succinate dehydrogenase, is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It receives electrons from succinate and transfers them to ubiquinone.Complex III, also known as ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase, is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It receives electrons from ubiquinone and transfers them to cytochrome c. Complex IV, also known as cytochrome c oxidase, is also located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It receives electrons from cytochrome c and transfers them to oxygen, ultimately producing water as a byproduct.In summary, the proteins of the electron transport chain are located in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The ETC is made up of four main protein complexes, Complex I, Complex II, Complex III, and Complex IV, which work together to generate a flow of electrons through the membrane, creating a proton gradient that drives the production of ATP, the primary energy currency of cells. Each complex is made up of multiple subunits, some encoded by the mitochondrial DNA and others by the nuclear DNA.