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Electrons are subatomic particles that are responsible for chemical reactions and the electrical conductivity of matter. They are negatively charged and are found outside the nucleus of an atom. The location of electrons within an atom is determined by their energy levels, also known as electron shells or orbitals.The electrons in an atom occupy specific energy levels, which are arranged in shells around the nucleus. The innermost shell, known as the K-shell, can hold a maximum of 2 electrons, the second shell, L-shell, can hold a maximum of 8 electrons, and so on. The outermost shell, known as the valence shell, is responsible for the chemical properties of the atom.The electrons in an atom are not located in a specific point in space, but they are distributed in regions around the nucleus, known as orbitals. These orbitals have different shapes, such as s, p, d, and f, which indicate the distribution of electrons in different regions of space. The electrons in an atom occupy these orbitals in a specific order, with the lowest energy orbitals being filled first.Electrons are also in constant motion, and they change their energy levels by absorbing or emitting energy. The movement of electrons from one energy level to another is known as electronic transitions. These transitions give rise to the absorption or emission of light, which is the basis of many spectroscopic techniques used to study atoms and molecules.In summary, electrons are subatomic particles that are responsible for chemical reactions and the electrical conductivity of matter. They are negatively charged and are found outside the nucleus of an atom. The location of electrons within an atom is determined by their energy levels, which are arranged in shells around the nucleus. The electrons in an atom are not located in a specific point in space, but they are distributed in regions around the nucleus, known as orbitals. They are also in constant motion and change their energy levels by absorbing or emitting energy, this is known as electronic transitions.